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Top 10 Longest Bridges in the World

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Top 10 Longest Bridges in the World - Danyang-Kunshan Viaduct Travel

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Top 10 Longest Bridges in the World

Exploring Top 10 Longest Bridges in the world : Bridges are marvels of human engineering, and the longest among them are often considered feats that rival the wonders of the world. Surprisingly, a significant number of these impressive structures are situated in China.

      

In this exploration, we will delve into the top 10 longest bridges in the world, marveling at their incredible lengths and the breathtaking landscapes they traverse.

Danyang-Kunshan Viaduct – Connecting Cities and Mountains:

In the province of Jiangsu, China, lies the Danyang-Kunshan Viaduct, officially recognized as the world’s longest railway bridge. Completed in a mere two and a half years, this extraordinary structure spans 164.8 kilometers, connecting the bustling cities of Nanjing and Shanghai.

The viaduct stands as a testament to human ingenuity, rising above canals, rice fields, the Yangtze Valley, and lakes, even tunneling through mountains. Boasting various architectural styles, including arched, frame, and cable-stayed designs, it accommodates high-speed trains hurtling through at speeds up to 430 km/h.

Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct – Taiwan’s Mountainous Marvel:

A railway bridge of significance in Taiwan, the Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct, falls just seven and a half kilometers short of the Danyang-Kunshan Viaduct. An integral part of Taiwan’s High Mountain Railway, it traverses seismically dangerous mountainous terrain, contributing to a monthly throughput of approximately 200 million people since its operation began in 2007.

Tianjin Viaduct or Great Bridge – Connecting Cities Swiftly:

Although it held the title of the second-longest bridge for a short period, the Tianjin Viaduct remains crucial as part of the Beijing-Shanghai Eastern Railway and the intercity Beijing-Tianjin Railway. Spanning 113.7 kilometers, it enables modern high-speed trains to cover the journey between Langfang and Tianjin in less than an hour, providing convenient travel options in Great China.

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Chanday Viaduct – A High-Mountain Marvel:

Completed in 2010, the Chanday Viaduct stretches over 105 kilometers, forming an integral part of China’s high-mountain railway network. With 3092 earthquake-resistant supports, this engineering marvel offers both spectacular views and efficient travel for tourists and locals alike.

Bridge over Wei – Linking Xi’an and Zhangzhou:

This bridge, spanning almost 80 kilometers, connects Xi’an and Zhangzhou, gracefully crossing the Wei River twice. Though it lost its top-ranking status in 2010, it served as a pioneer, paving the way for subsequent grandiose projects, showcasing the evolving technology and design expertise of Chinese bridge builders.

Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB)

The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) stands as a testament to human ingenuity, with its inauguration on February 6, 2018. Not only is it globally significant, but its design is unparalleled. Stretching over 55 kilometers, it holds the title of the longest sea bridge worldwide.

A blend of three cable-stayed bridges and a 6.7-kilometer underwater tunnel, it incorporates four artificial islands housing passenger terminals. While the bridge reduces travel time between Zhuhai and Hong Kong to just half an hour, the construction journey had its share of challenges, including economic, political, and environmental disputes.

The Construction Journey:

The HZMB construction claimed the lives of 19 individuals, with up to 600 others suffering injuries. To put its enormity into perspective, it required scrapping 55 Eiffel Towers. The bridge’s control center prioritizes driver safety, monitoring their well-being during the journey.

The Bang Na Expressway (Thailand):

Our journey begins in Thailand with the Bang Na Expressway, a bridge that spans an impressive 54 kilometers. Situated in the bustling city of Bangkok, this bridge aims to combat notorious traffic jams. With three lanes in each direction and a width exceeding 27 meters, the Bang Na Expressway is a toll bridge, offering a quicker alternative to the free surface roads, where traffic jams can leave travelers stranded for hours.

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Beijing Viaduct – Grand Beijing (China):

Venturing back to China, we encounter the Beijing Viaduct, a significant section of the Chinese High Mountain Railway. Stretching over 48 kilometers from Beijing to Shanghai, this bridge boasts a distance of 44 meters between supporting pillars. As the second-longest bridge globally, it forms a crucial part of China’s extensive railway network.

Lake Pontchartrain Dam Bridge, Louisiana, USA

In the heart of Louisiana, spanning Lake Pontchartrain, lies a remarkable feat of engineering – the Lake Pontchartrain Dam Bridge. This colossal structure, measuring an astounding 38,422 kilometers in length, connects the cities of Metairie and Mandeville. The bridge, completed in May 1969, boasts two roads and is supported by a formidable array of 9 thousand concrete piles.

Before its construction, the region relied on ferries and detours around the lake. With the advent of this bridge, travel from the northern part of the lake to New Orleans became not only more comfortable but remarkably faster, reducing the journey to less than an hour.

Despite the challenging climatic conditions in Louisiana, including frequent hurricanes, the bridge has rarely suffered significant damage. During the tumultuous Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the bridge faced damage but was expeditiously restored in less than a month. Since then, it has been a crucial transportation link, collecting a $3 fee for travel, entirely dedicated to its upkeep.

Wuhan Metro Overpass, China

Addressing the critical transportation issues in Wuhan, China, the Wuhan Metro Overpass stands as a testament to modern urban infrastructure. Launched in July 2008, this elevated metro line spans 37.78 km, providing a solution to the city’s persistent traffic jams, particularly between the densely populated areas of Hankou and Wuchang.

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The first line of the Wuhan Metro, functioning as an overpass over former railway tracks, features 32 stations in the Hankou area. Although facing design challenges such as duplicating cheap bus routes and lacking convenient walking approaches to stations, ongoing construction seeks to address these issues, enhancing the bridge’s overall capacity.

Manchac Swamp Viaduct, USA

The Manchac Swamp Viaduct in the United States, commissioned in 1979, once claimed the tenth spot among the world’s longest bridges. Spanning the picturesque Manchac Swamp, this viaduct serves as a vital transportation link, showcasing the engineering prowess of its time.

Switzerland’s European Pedestrian Bridge

Breaking the trend of transportation-focused bridges, Switzerland boasts the world’s longest pedestrian bridge near Zermatt. Suspended over the Grabenhufer breach, this narrow bridge, with a width of 65 cm, provides a thrilling experience at an altitude of 85 meters. Equipped with an anti-sway system and holding ropes weighing eight tons, the bridge offers panoramic views of the Alpine landscape, including the iconic Matterhorn.

In this eclectic mix of global bridges, ranging from expansive transport links to pedestrian marvels, each structure contributes to the world’s diverse and impressive infrastructure landscape. Share your thoughts and views in the comments below regarding Top 10 Longest Bridges in the World.

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Valentine’s Deals

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Valentine’s Day

On February 14, many countries around the world celebrate Valentine’s Day.

      

It is believed that Valentine’s Day has existed for more than 16 centuries, but the holidays of Love have been known since even earlier times – since the times of ancient pagan cultures. For example, the Romans celebrated a festival of eroticism called Lupercalia in mid-February, in honor of the goddess of love, Juno Februata.

The main custom on Valentine’s Day is to express your feelings. Some confess their love for the first time, others propose marriage. Gifts for Valentine’s Day can vary, but a Valentine’s card is considered a must.

Gift ideas for a Woman / Gifts for Her

The custom of giving flowers to a beloved girl dates back to the 18th century, when the French, and later the British, began to give roses to their lovers. A bouquet of red roses, which are symbols of this holiday, will be a modest gift or a good addition.

Traditionally, on Valentine’s Day, in addition to flowers, girls are given soft toys and sweets. If you know that your significant other will like it, feel free to give it!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jewelry, perfume or cosmetics are universal gifts that many girls will be happy with. The main thing is to know your tastes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A bag, scarf, sunglasses, shoes or belt will perfectly complement the wardrobe of your beloved woman and will become a pleasant sign of attention.

Gift ideas for Men / Gifts for Him

It is believed that finding a good gift for a man is somewhat more difficult than for a woman. Let’s share a few ideas with you.

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Perfume is a good gift idea for a man, especially if you know his favorite scent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cloth. Consider giving your loved one a new sweater, T-shirt or tie. A new wardrobe item, chosen with attention and care, will evoke many pleasant emotions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taking photographs together, especially in printed form (such as a photo book), is a universal way to make your loved one smile.

Attributes associated with your man’s hobbies. Remember what your partner is interested in and what he would like to receive as a gift.

Accessories. An umbrella, bag, backpack, wallet, watch, purse or business card holder will do.

How to celebrate February 14

A romantic dinner in a restaurant or at home can be a very sweet option to celebrate Valentine’s Day. You can go to an exhibition, a walk or a movie together. You can go out of town or finally take that same trip together that you have been planning for a long time, but have been putting off.

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Dental Plaque in Dogs

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Dental Plaque in Dogs

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Dental Plaque in Dogs

Understanding and Managing Dental Plaque in Dogs :

      

Dental health is a crucial aspect of overall well-being for our canine companions, and dental plaque stands as one of the primary culprits behind dental issues in dogs. If left unattended, dental plaque can progress into more severe problems like tartar buildup, leading to potential health complications.

Addressing dental issues promptly is essential to avoid escalated interventions, including procedures under anesthesia. This comprehensive guide delves into the formation of dental plaque in dogs, the significance of prevention, and the role of appropriate chews in maintaining canine dental health.

Formation of Dental Plaque:

In the wild, dogs’ ancestors maintained their dental health through chewing on bones from their prey, a natural process that helped grind materials against their teeth, effectively removing plaque. Chewing also stimulated saliva production, releasing collagen proteins that aided in dissolving plaque.

While domesticated dogs may not have to hunt for their food, they still retain a natural chewing instinct. As responsible pet owners, we can actively contribute to their dental care and prevent plaque buildup.

Preventing Dental Plaque:

Preventing dental plaque involves providing dogs with appropriate chews that cater to their chewing instincts. These chews can be broadly categorized into snacks and toys, both serving unique purposes in maintaining dental hygiene.

1. Chews as Snacks:

Natural snacks like 100% natural yak bars or sustainable root chews from coffee trees are enticing options for dogs. These snacks not only appeal to dogs with their delicious taste but also contribute to sustainable and eco-friendly dental care practices.

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2. Chews as Toys:

Chew toys are specially designed to withstand vigorous chewing while facilitating teeth cleaning. Floss rope toys, for instance, feature a flossing action that reaches between the teeth, effectively targeting plaque. Nylon or rubber chew toys are durable and can be tailored to suit the size, age, and chewing preferences of individual dogs.

Introducing Olive Wood Chews:

A sustainable alternative gaining popularity in the market is olive wood chews. Olive wood possesses an attractive appearance and robustness, making it an ideal natural product for dogs. Unlike other types of wood, olive wood does not split but frays naturally.

This ensures that there are no sharp pieces that could potentially harm the dog, offering a safe chewing experience.

Benefits of Olive Wood Chews:

a. Durability: The density and hardness of olive wood make it exceptionally durable, catering even to the strongest chewers.

b. Toothbrush Effect: The fine fibers of olive wood act like a toothbrush, contributing to effective dental cleaning.

c. Safety: Olive wood’s natural structure prevents it from splitting, eliminating the risk of sharp edges that could pose a threat to the dog’s safety.

Monitoring Chewing Activity:

While providing dogs with chews is beneficial, responsible pet ownership involves monitoring their chewing activity. Regularly observe your dog while they chew to ensure their safety and identify any potential issues.

The Joy of Chewing:

Beyond the dental benefits, chewing also stimulates the release of endorphins in a dog’s brain, often referred to as the “happiness hormone.” This not only contributes to their dental well-being but also enhances their overall emotional state.

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Conclusion:

Prioritizing canine dental health involves a multifaceted approach, with the choice of appropriate chews playing a pivotal role. Whether opting for natural snacks or durable toys like olive wood chews, the emphasis is on preventive care.

By understanding the significance of dental hygiene and actively engaging in practices that promote it, pet owners can ensure the well-being and happiness of their furry companions. In essence, the joy of chewing extends beyond dental care, fostering a harmonious relationship between dogs and their owners.

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Most Expensive Road in the World | List of Countries

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Most Expensive Road in the World | List of Countries

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Most Expensive Road in the World

List of Countries with Most Expensive Road in the World :

      

Embarking on a high-speed journey down a well-maintained superhighway is a thrill cherished by drivers worldwide. But have you ever pondered the cost behind creating such roadways? If not, prepare to be intrigued as we delve into the countries boasting the most expensive roads.

From Germany’s legendary autobahns to China’s rapidly evolving expressways, each nation has its own tale of road construction expenses.

Germany:

Renowned for their meticulous engineering prowess, Germany boasts a network of roads, including the famed autobahns, covering approximately 30% of the country. The cost of constructing a kilometer of expressway in Germany is estimated at 19-20 million euros. While not the world’s priciest, this investment ensures more than just a smooth road surface.

German thoroughness is evident in precise markings, comprehensive road signs, electronic displays, and an emphasis on safety and comfort. With a service life of 30-40 years before major repairs, the autobahns are a testament to German engineering excellence.

Switzerland:

Similar to Germany in precision, Switzerland showcases ideal roads, albeit at a higher cost. The challenging mountainous terrain, elevations, and the inaccessibility of many areas contribute to an average cost of around 40 million euros per kilometer.

Tunnels, essential for navigating the rugged landscape, significantly escalate road construction expenses. Additionally, the Swiss commitment to maintaining their roads is evident through extensive 24-hour video surveillance.

China:

Surprising to many, China has emerged as a contender in the realm of expensive roads. While the average cost per kilometer hovers around $11 million, the Chinese government’s increasing involvement in complex and large-scale projects is driving costs higher.

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An exemplar is the expressway linking Jishou and Changje, where challenging terrain and a unique bridge design elevated costs to a staggering $71 million per kilometer.

USA:

In stark contrast to European pragmatism, the United States demonstrates a penchant for lavish road projects, even in sparsely populated areas. The cost per kilometer often exceeds $100 million, with a Boston-based route, complete with bridges and tunnels, setting a record at $117 million per kilometer. This reflects a distinctive American approach where luxury is not spared, even for routes serving small communities.

Russia:

Russia, surprisingly, emerges as the country with the most expensive roads. However, the reasoning lies not in superior quality but in pervasive kickbacks at various levels. Notorious examples include the construction of a 48-kilometer road to Sochi for the 2014 Olympics, which cost a staggering $7 billion ($140 million per kilometer). To put this in perspective, estimates suggest that the entire stretch could have been paved with a double layer of $100 bills for the same amount.

Russia’s audacity reaches new heights with the proposed fourth transport ring in Moscow, a project shrouded in uncertainty. A mere 3.8-kilometer section carries a mind-boggling cost of $2.27 billion, translating to nearly $600 million per kilometer. If completed, this project could potentially secure a place in the Guinness Book of Records as the most expensive engineering structure globally.

Despite these exorbitant figures, Russia ranks a modest 125th globally in road quality. This contrast highlights the importance of not just investing large sums but also employing funds wisely in constructing and maintaining roads.

Conclusion:

From the precision of German autobahns to the mountainous challenges faced by Swiss roads, and the audacious road projects in the United States and China, each country contributes a unique chapter to the narrative of the world’s most expensive roads.

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Russia’s paradoxical position, with costly roads but modest quality, underscores the need for judicious use of funds in infrastructure projects. As we navigate the vast network of global roadways, the stories behind their construction costs unveil a fascinating tapestry of engineering feats, financial decisions, and cultural idiosyncrasies.

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